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Live Symposia 
General Topics
       What is Dialysis?
       Residual Renal Function
          The Importance of RRF
       Diabetes Management
          PD and the Diabetic Patient
          General Facts: Diabetes
          When to Initiate PD in the Diabetic Patient
       Renal Osteodystrophy
          Renal Osteodystrophy Clinical Studies
       Numbers-Their Use and Interpretation
       Basic Statistics
       Vaccinating CKD and Dialysis Patients
Peritoneal Dialysis
       History of PD
          History of PD
          Evolution of PD
       Basic Principles of PD
          Anatomy of the Peritoneum
          Physiology of Peritoneal Transport
       Peritoneal Transport 
          Understanding Testing Methods
          Transport Status:Classification and Implications
          Peritoneal Function After Exposure to PD
       Modalities of Therapy
          PD Modalities
       PD Adequacy
          Prescribing Dialysis
             Targets of PD Prescription
             Determinants of Dose
             Exchange Volume and Position
             How to Reach the Goals
             Monitoring the PD Patient
             Evaluating the Patient as a Whole
             StdKt/V - Dose Equivalency
          Importance of Volume Control
          How to Achieve Adequate PD UF
          Non-Infectious Complications of PD
          Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Infections
             Management of ESI
             Diagnosis and Treatment of Peritonitis 
       Dialysis Access
          The Evolution of PD Catheters
          Preop Management
          Placement of PD Catheters
          Intraoperative Management
          Post Operative Care and Management
          Complications of PD Catheters
       Clinical Outcomes
          Clinical outcomes of PD and HD
       History of Hemodialysis
       Kinetic Principles
          Impact of t & Kr on Kt/V
          Measuring Hemodialysis dose
       Modalities of Therapy
          Hemodialysis Regimens/Prescriptions
          Extracorporeal Modalities
       Home HD
          HD Regimens/Prescriptions
          The Influence of Dose, Time & Frequency
          Every other day HD (HD3.5)
          Time Versus Dialysis-Free Interval
          Benefits of Increased HD Frequency
          Increased Frequency – Other Modalities
          Potential Lifestyle Benefits of HD3.5
          Home Program Management
             Establishing a Home Program
       Intradialytic Complications
          Difficulties in Prescribing Adequate Dialysis
       Sodium Modeling
       Hemodialysis Access
          Introduction to Vascular Access
          Overview of Arteriovenous Fistula
          Overview of Arteriovenous Grafts
          Overview of Central Venous Catheters
          Vascular Access Monitoring and Surveillance
       Access Complications
          Overview of Hemodialysis Complications
          AVF Stenosis
          Interventions for AVF and AVG Stenosis
          Primary Fistula Failure
          Catheter Related Bacteremia
       Other Links

Air Embolism


  • Can be venous or less commonly, arterial
  • Three vulnerable areas of air entry in dialysis patients:
    • Between patient and blood pump, due to high negative pressure and leaks in the circuit in this segment
    • Air in the dialysate fluid (uncommon, mostly gets trapped in venous chamber)
    • During central venous catheter insertion or removal
  • Upright body position and hypovolemia, both by reducing venous pressure, are significant contributing factors



  • Prevent further air entry by clamping and disconnecting the circuit
  • Flat supine position may be better over traditionally advocated left lateral (Duran’s position) and Trendelenburg position1,2
  • Oxygen with FiO2 100%
  • Hyperbaric oxygen3 (prevents cerebral edema)
  • Use of Luer-lock syringes for blood draw from catheters



  • Test machine prior to use to ensure that the air detector alarm system is working effectively
  • Catheter insertion or removal should be in a head low position (insertion site 5 cm below right atrium).  Patient can assist by holding their breath or doing a Valsalva maneuver that will increase central venous pressure4.


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  1. Vesely TM. Air embolism during insertion of central venous catheters. J Vasc Interv Radiol 12:1291-1295, 2001
  2. Muth CM, Shank ES. Gas embolism. N Engl J Med  342:476-482, 2000
  3. Baskin SF, Woznizk RF. Hyperbaric oxygenation in the treatment of hemodialysis-associated air embolism. N Engl J Med 293:184-185, 1975
  4. Palmon SC, Moore LE, Lundberg J, Toung T. Venous air embolism: A review. J Clin Anesth 9:251-257, 1997
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