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Live Symposia 
General Topics
       What is Dialysis?
       Residual Renal Function
          The Importance of RRF
       Diabetes Management
          PD and the Diabetic Patient
          General Facts: Diabetes
          When to Initiate PD in the Diabetic Patient
       Renal Osteodystrophy
          Renal Osteodystrophy Clinical Studies
       Numbers-Their Use and Interpretation
       Basic Statistics
       Vaccinating CKD and Dialysis Patients
Peritoneal Dialysis
       History of PD
          History of PD
          Evolution of PD
       Basic Principles of PD
          Anatomy of the Peritoneum
          Physiology of Peritoneal Transport
       Peritoneal Transport 
          Understanding Testing Methods
          Transport Status:Classification and Implications
          Peritoneal Function After Exposure to PD
       Modalities of Therapy
          PD Modalities
       PD Adequacy
          Prescribing Dialysis
             Targets of PD Prescription
             Determinants of Dose
             Exchange Volume and Position
             How to Reach the Goals
             Monitoring the PD Patient
             Evaluating the Patient as a Whole
             StdKt/V - Dose Equivalency
          Importance of Volume Control
          How to Achieve Adequate PD UF
          Non-Infectious Complications of PD
          Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Infections
             Management of ESI
             Diagnosis and Treatment of Peritonitis 
       Dialysis Access
          The Evolution of PD Catheters
          Preop Management
          Placement of PD Catheters
          Intraoperative Management
          Post Operative Care and Management
          Complications of PD Catheters
       Clinical Outcomes
          Clinical outcomes of PD and HD
       History of Hemodialysis
       Kinetic Principles
          Impact of t & Kr on Kt/V
          Measuring Hemodialysis dose
       Modalities of Therapy
          Hemodialysis Regimens/Prescriptions
          Extracorporeal Modalities
       Home HD
          HD Regimens/Prescriptions
          The Influence of Dose, Time & Frequency
          Every other day HD (HD3.5)
          Time Versus Dialysis-Free Interval
          Benefits of Increased HD Frequency
          Increased Frequency – Other Modalities
          Potential Lifestyle Benefits of HD3.5
          Home Program Management
             Establishing a Home Program
       Intradialytic Complications
          Difficulties in Prescribing Adequate Dialysis
       Sodium Modeling
       Hemodialysis Access
          Introduction to Vascular Access
          Overview of Arteriovenous Fistula
          Overview of Arteriovenous Grafts
          Overview of Central Venous Catheters
          Vascular Access Monitoring and Surveillance
       Access Complications
          Overview of Hemodialysis Complications
          AVF Stenosis
          Interventions for AVF and AVG Stenosis
          Primary Fistula Failure
          Catheter Related Bacteremia
       Other Links

Data handling and presentation



Data is the food of statistics. Data means any item of information however presented or represented. A datum can be an item of text such as a name or an address or a number or numerical expression.  A number of related data may be associated together to form a record – each separate data item is then referred to as a field within the record. Many records together form a table or database.


For data to be meaningful and useful the items of data must be gathered or captured and recorded in a systematic manner. This is referred to as data handling. Data handling may be as simple as orderly recording on a sheet of paper or the completion of entry forms on a computer screen. Data integrity means putting data in its proper format in its proper place. Data accuracy means that every element of the data is correct whether it be the spelling of a text item, a digit in a number or the proper position of the decimal place within a number. Data validation is a system of checking that the item of data is consistent and meaningful. Accuracy, integrity and validation are essential to proper data handling.


Modern computers allow us to store zillions of items of data and records with relative ease. In itself, such stored data is useless unless we can present it. There are numerous ways of presenting data from the simplest list, to ordered tables to graphical outputs such as charts which can take many forms. In presenting data we should seek the methods that most clearly communicate the meaning and are most easily readable. Readily available software programs offer numerous options for data presentation. The art of data presentation is choosing from the many to achieve clarity and to avoid the temptation to be excessively clever or flamboyant.


Some data may effectively be presented with little or no manipulation; others only make sense if the data have first been subjected to one or more forms of analysis. The information implicit in some data is obvious; for others, the data must be “mined” – one has to dig into the data and analyze it using more or less sophisticated mathematical (statistical) techniques for its meaning to become apparent. The data interpretation and analysis is what converts data to information and justifies the effort and time spent in data handling.


P/N 101849-01 Rev A 08/2012


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